Here are notes I live tweeted at Gluecon 2016.

I took the following notes during various sessions at Gluecon 2016 at the Omni Interlocken in Broomfield Colorado. Notes were live tweeted during the event on @windley using Kevin Marks' Noter Live tool.

melody meckfessel:

starting off the day with how cloud accelerates innovation in software development

Three waves of cloud tools: Colocation, virtualized data centers, and 3rd wave: actual, global, flexible cloud

Goal is NoOps: auto everything. No need to manage or spin up servers. Write code, rather than manage servers

Kubernetes manages containers, supports multiple envs & container runtimes, 100% open source

Speaking of developers: "We keep raising the bar on ourselves"

Goal is to let developers focus on code. PaaS (e.g. appEngine) needs to evolve

Now: PaaS is a walled garden; Future: choice of tools, more complex apps, global scale

31% time spent troubleshooting; ofter in time-critical situations; need better tools: trace, error reporting, prod debug

Duncan Johnson-Watt:

Up next: building apps on the blockchain

Hyperledger is new project from Linux Foundation.

Business is increasingly interested in permissioned blockchains rather than promiscuous or permissionless blockchains

Governance of blockchain will be incredibly important if we're going to bet on this technology

Requirements for blockchains vary greatly across different use cases

"This is too important to be owned by a single entity" speaking of distributed ledger tech

Hyper ledger has ~50 members, >$6M in funding, 2300 membership requests

Brian Behlendorf is now executive director

Showing how to deploy a blockchain application with Cloudsoft AMP

Key concepts: shared ledger, smart contract, consensus network, membership, events, management, wallet, integration

live demo of asset transfer demo. #brave Challenge is speed at the moment. Proof of asset ownership controls transfer

Mary Scotton:

want to be diverse? Start by diversifying your twitter feed.

Jen Tong:

Crash course in electrical engineering at start of #IoT session

Done with signals; moving on to components. "kind of like legos except sometimes they catch on fire"

bread boards, perf boards, jumpers, resistors, LEDs, push button, capacitor, servo motors

The recipe: put components on bread board, arduino uno converts component signals, feeds to RaspPI over USB

Johnny Five is a JS code for #IoT on Arduino Uno

Firebase is a real-time database; "data that is best served fresh"

Where's the Bus? as an example of real-time data. I care where the bus is now, not yesterday.

Collaborative drawing is another example where real-time matters. Much less interesting with several second lag

When you're working on your Arduino always do it unplugged or you'll be sad.

After getting the button and LED hooked up: we have a thing, but no Internet yet. Let's add Firebase

why live code when you can live copy/paste

Firebase shows button presses in FB console. "Now, let's go through the Internet to change the LED status"

Connects button to her slides. Button adds rick-roll to the slide.

Celebrate the first time something catches on fire

Slides are here:

Alex Balazs:

speaking on how Intuit is breaking up the monolith

Intuit moving everything to AWS; shutting down local data centers

TurboTax is a $2 Billion business; product managers don't want to touch it (other than updating tax logic)

our vision is to make tax prep obsolete; this makes TurboTax irrelevant

20yo tech stack; terrible, horrible, monolith. Written by tax specialists who became programmers.

Going beyond the interview to personal experience. Why as 20yo barista in NYC if they get California RR Retirement?

Can't replace TurboTax by creating something complex to replace it. #FAIL'd twice already. #gallslaw

2nd problem: trying to create better TurboTax instead of creating product to kill TurboTax

Bearing up the TurboTax monolith: everything as a service; quickly create frictionless experiences

Teams work at their own speed; teams are decoupled; services built for other teams.

path forward to create a pirate ship. Everyone wants to be a pirate.

pirate ship means "this was not a sanctioned project"

took the narrowest part of TurboTax: vehicle registration, 3 screens; TurboTax interview has 53K screens

hardest problem to solve in TurboTax: what does back button do.

back button takes you back a screen; should it save the data or not?

Built vehicle registration in 4 weeks and pushed to production; Sr leadership then sanctioned project;

Old stack: changing user experience took 3 months. New stack: 1 week.

Now 14 most common topics in TurboTax are running on new stack

In a world with 50K interview screens, you can build them manually. Intuit has a "tax player" for tax content

Intuit's ability to enter markets on new devices skyrocketed

Old product had 6 different "beaconing" libraries

In three years Intuit will have eliminated every line of code from the monolith and be completely service based

1. Everything as a service 2. Attack the monolith; 3. Build common application fabric (prescriptive on standards)

Rajesh Raman:

Time is Hard: Doing Meaningful Things with Data

Doing meaningful things with fast data

fast data continually reflects changing state; enables real time decision making

Time data often implies big data

Ex: sentiment analysis on Twitter; seismic sensor networks; data fusing from distributed sensors (phones in cars)

individual records are small; all have timestamps; repeated measurements yield time series

Value of time series data diminishes over time; 2 strategies: store nothing & store everything

tiered storage: recent data at high fidelity; older data at low fidelity; store analysis not raw sensor data

Batch processing is common, but reduces responsiveness

Alternative is stream processing; stream processor is stateful and incremental; typically using O(1) algorithm

stream processing: read-once, write-once. No do overs.

stream processing is not only far more timely, but also more efficient than batch processing.

BUT: you lose ability to rewind and do a redo.

Good news: simple primitives take you a long way; bad news: dealing with time is hard

merging streams by timestamp; skewed, irregular, bursty, laggy, jittery, lossy

skew: data from different time series arrive at different timestamps

irregular: aperiodic or unsteady periodicity

bursty: no activity for while, then all arrive at once

laggy: difference between generation and receipt

skew happens all the time. must logically align data within each period; requires understanding data

skew requires alignment between alignment and the periodicity the data is arriving at

Bustiness and lag require deciding how long to wait

The longer you wait the more likely data will appear; but computation is less timely

wait time must be bounded in some way because of finite resources

Types pf clocks: measurement time, receipt time, analytic/processing time

deadlines exclude data: schemes: static guarantees timeliness while dynamic adapts to changing conditions

dynamic deadlines can be set based on how much data is being excluded by deadline

Elliot Turner:

Morning starts off with cognitive computing

Arthur Bock wrote the first gam playing computer (checkers) on the IBM701

IBM's Deep Blue (chess) was 10M times faster than the IBM701; massively parallel with specialized chess playing ASICs

In 1997 Deep Blue was in top 500 super computers. Today the same compute is available on a $400 graphics card

IBM Watson was a 305 year project; team of 15 people. Within a year, it could regularly beat some champions.

Problem domain: broad domain; complex language; high precision, accurate response

Real Jeopardy champions buzz in 80% of the time & answer correctly 80% of the time. That's incredible performance

Can't be solved with lookup table. In 20,000 questions there are over 2500 types; bigger bucket is 3%

Cognitive has evolved from systems that play games to multi-model understanding speech, emotions; all API driven

Cognitive system is a partnership between humans & computers

Cognitive computing depends on understanding, reasoning, and learning.

Cognitive systems are trained, not programmed. They work with humans to develop they're capabilities.

Turning cognitive computing loose on Internet leads to interesting results. For example, it learned dogs are people.

The problem is that there's not "one truth" In some contexts people equate their dogs with people. But dogs aren't people

Now, understanding human speech is an API call away

Three rest calls: speech understanding -> translation -> txt-to-speech yields a speech translator

Eric Norlin:

thanks Kim, Brian, and rest of the staff. They make the conference work

Brendan Burns:

Introspection: find out what went wrong; Insight is finding out things you didn't know

Introspection requirements: specification, status, events, attribution

Audit requirements: transparency, immutability, verification, restrictions & limits, automation (APIs)

Insight requirements: dynamic organization, interactive exploration, visualization

At first blush, IaaS checks a lot of these boxes, but not all of them (eg. immutability, monitoring APIs are wrong)

Containers are the right API object, can be immutable, and can be verifiable

Cluster management has organization, introspection, specification, status, events

Demo of KSQL for querying Kubernetes. Here's the repo:

Kubernetes API server enables immutability by limiting actions on containers (eg ensure code checked in)

ABAC in cluster management allows policies to control actions (eg access, deployment)

Policy ex: Only allow certain people to create containers that come from specific registries/repos

Admission control policies can control resource use (eg auto-approve if resource overage explained in issue ticket)

Mosquito checks for things that haven't changed in 3 months. Finds dead resources.

Or find services or machines that restart the most.

Benjamin Hindman:

@alexwilliams interviewing

VMs didn't change things; containers and cluster management did.

Rosanna Myers:

Robots are lots cheaper; robots are safer;

A collaborative robot or cobot

KRL is Kuka Robot Language (or Kynetx Rule Language)

A 3D printer is a blind robot. Having vision is a good thing.

Big breakthrough is cloud robotics. Off load processing to the cloud. Ex: self driving cars

Big advantages: all robots learn from experiences of the others

Cloud robotics provides designing freedom, collaborative learning and application development

Manufacturing is still area for robotics; only 10% of manufacturing is automated. Barrier: robots are hard to use

Research is another. 90% of research projects not repeatable. And the pipetting by hand for hours isn't fun.

Another: 12M people require full time care. Eg. attach robot arm to wheelchair

Joe Beda:

I made the term "production identity" up

Google systems have largely been in production for > 10yrs & are highly integrated

GOOG doesn't have all the answers, but they do have all the problems.

Solutions aren't as important as understanding how to breakdown and frame problem

Question: how do we identity production services

Trend: Manual -> Automation

We have more things we're dealing with and the change more often than they have in the past.

Evolving security: (1) network problem; lock down network (2) application security both operations and code analysis

Micro segmentation: surround any piece of hardware with it's own policy. chroot for your network

Does readability imply authorization? Doesn't sound very secure

Microservices -> many connections between components. When a micro service has 100 connections, reachability doesn't cut it

Devops is therapy for large organizations

identity is lower level function from authn or authz

We can come up with a one-size-fits-all solution for production ID where authn and authz not so much

Many applications have their own idea of a user. So secret stores become key translators

GOOG has LOAF: stuff in production has an identity that is transported ambiently

SPIFFE: Secure Production Identity Framework for Everyone

SPIFFY is dailtone for identity


Developer experience: get SPIFFE ID, give it key pair with certificate chain & root certs to trust

Cert usage: TLS verification and message signing

When we talk about message signing, think JWOT

SPIFFE could be integrated in micro service and RPC frameworks, in smart "side car" proxies, & off-the--shelf systems

Future directions for SPIFFE: federation, authorization, delegation, capability tokens

See for more information

Chris Richardson:

speaking on patterns languages for microservices

Successful software development depends on architecture, process & organization

Organization should be small, autonomous teams

Process should be agile

There's no silver bullet for architecture (reference to Fred Brookes)

Architecture patterns are a reusable solution to a problem in a particular context

Patterns force you to consider tradeoffs: benefits, drawbacks, issues to resolve

Patterns force you to consider other patterns: alternative solution and solution introduced to the pattern

Microservices pattern available at

Infrastructure patterns include deployment and communication patterns

Core patterns include cross-cutting concerns

Application patterns include database architectures and data consistency

Monolithic architecture are relatively simple to develop, test, deploy, & scale (in certain contexts)

Problem is that successful applications keep growing; adding code day-after-day; you end up with a "ball of mud"

Monolithic architectures break process goals of agile and continuous deliver & the org goal of autonomous teams

Microservices architecture functionally decomposes app into many services intermediated by API gateways

Microservice architecture drawbacks: complexity, IPC, partial failure, TxN span multiple services; testing is hard

Issues: deployment; communication, partitioning; distributed data management

Shared databases lead to tight coupling between services; each service needs it's own data store

Data store per service -> services communicating via API only

Event-driven, eventually consistent architecture is solution to data store per service downsides

dual write problems traditionally solved using TxNs. Instead must reliably publish events; use Event sourcing

2nd problem: queries are no longer easy across several services; pattern is CQRS and materialized views

There are many more patterns for deployment, communication, etc.

Mark VanderWiele:

Connect and control #IoT devices in minutes using voice commands

Architecture uses MQTT to publish & subscribe data from device; processing in cloud; connecting homekit & TI devs

Learned: make devices more self-describable; allows generic UIs that devices plug into and work

Voice is the last mile in device interaction

Doing demos: monitor and control a device with voice commands

Demo using services from Bluemix services catalog

"ambient computing at your disposal"

Nodered used to get commands from speech application; program processes keywords; sends JSON using mQTT to robot

Using an iPod touch as the HomeKit gateway; using another iPod touch as gateway for bluetooth spheros

Created composite applications from multiple device types and the IoT foundation

Capabilities unfortunately change when manufacturers send firmware updates

John Musser:

APIs can be great, but not always... API Ops is the answer

APIs go down; have unversioned changes; API Ops to the rescue

API Ops is like DevOps for APIs

API Ops should build, test, and deploy APIs more reliably.

API Ops and Dev Ops are similar, but different in subtle ways

We're seeing more and more stories about API failures.

API Ops: design, build, test & release APIs more rapidly, frequently, & reliably

Elephant in the room is micro services; DevOps necessary for managing all these services.

Use of API specification has exploded. So has the number of API tools

Why all the tools? The API Lifecycle. 1st gen focused on operation. 2nd gen focused on the rest

API Lifecycle: requirements, design, development, test, deployment, and operations

DevOps is about looking at entire lifecycle. API Ops is similarly focused on entire lifecycle

Going meta: APIs for API Ops

The entire API lifecycle can be controlled with APIs

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Last modified: Thu Oct 10 12:47:19 2019.