Generative identity allows us to live digital lives with dignity and effectiveness, contemplates and addresses the problems of social inclusion, and supports economic equality to everyone around the globe. This article describes the implementation self-sovereign identity through protocol-mediated credential exchange on the self-sovereign internet, examines its properties, and argues for it generative nature from those properties.

Generative Art Ornamental Sunflower

The Generative Self-Sovereign Internet explored the generative properties of the self-sovereign internet, a secure overlay network created by DID connections. The generative nature of the self-sovereign internet is underpinned by the same kind of properties that make the internet what it is, promising a more secure and private, albeit no less useful, internet for tomorrow.

In this article, I explore the generativity of self-sovereign identity—specifically the exchange of verifiable credentials. One of the key features of the self-sovereign internet is that it is protocological—the messaging layer supports the implementation of protocol-mediated interchanges on top of it. This extensibility underpins its generativity. Two of the most important protocols defined on top of the self-sovereign internet support the exchange of verifiable credentials as we'll see below. Together, these protocols work on top of the the self-sovereign internet to give rise to self-sovereign identity through a global identity metasystem.

Verifiable Credentials

While the control of self-certifying identifiers in the form of DIDs is the basis for the autonomy of the self-sovereign internet, that autonomy is made effective through the exchange of verifiable credentials. Using verifiable credentials, an autonomous actor on the self-sovereign internet can prove attributes to others in a way they can trust. Figure 1 shows the SSI stack. The self-sovereign internet is labeled "Layer Two" in this figure. Credential exchange happens on top of that in Layer Three.

SSI Stack
Figure 1: SSI Stack (click to enlarge)

Figure 2 shows how credentials are exchanged. In this diagram, Alice has DID-based relationships with Bob, Carol, and Alice has received a credential from The credential contains attributes that is willing to attest belong to Alice. For example, Attestor might be her employer attesting that she is an employee. Attestor likely gave her a credential for their own purposes. Maybe Alice uses it for passwordless login at company web sites and services and to purchase meals at the company cafeteria. She might also use it at partner websites (like the benefits provider) to provide shared authentication without federation (and it's associated infrastructure). Attestor is acting as a credential issuer. We call Alice a credential holder in this ceremony. The company and partner websites are credential verifiers. Credential issuance is a protocol that operates on top of the self-sovereign internet.

Credential exchange
Figure 2: Credential Exchange (click to enlarge)

Even though issued the credential to Alice for its own purposes, she holds it in her wallet and can use it at other places besides Attestor. For example, suppose she is applying for a loan and her bank, Certiphi, who wants proof that she's employed and has a certain salary. Alice could use the credential from Attestor to prove to Certiphi that she's employed and that her salary exceeds a given threshold1. Certiphi is also acting as a credential verifier. Credential proof and verification is also protocol that operates on top of the self-sovereign internet. As shown in Figure 2, individuals can also issue and verify credentials.

We say Alice "proved" attributes to Certiphi from her credentials because the verification protocol uses zero knowledge proof to support the minimal disclosure of data. Thus the credential that Alice holds from Attestor might contain a rich array of information, but Alice need only disclose the information that Certiphi needs for her loan. In addition, the proof process ensures that Alice can't be correlated though the DIDs she has shared with others. Attribute data isn't tied to DIDs or the keys that are currently assigned to the DID. Rather than attributes bound to identifiers and keys, Alice's identifiers and keys empower the attributes.

Certiphi can validate important properties of the credential. Certiphi is able to validate the fidelity of the credential by reading the credential definition from the ledger (Layer One in Figure 1), retrieving Attestor's public DID from the credential definition, and resolving it to get's public key to check the credential's signature. At the same time, the presentation protocol allows Certiphi to verify that the credential is being presented by the person it was issued to and that it hasn't been revoked (using a revocation registry store in Layer 1). Certiphi does not need to contact Attestor or have any prior business relationship to verify these properties.

The global identity metasystem, shown as the yellow box in Figure 1, comprises the ledger at Layer 1, the self-sovereign internet at Layer 2, and the credential exchange protocols that operate on top of it. Together, these provide the necessary features and characteristics to support self-sovereign identity.

Properties of Credential Exchange

Verifiable credentials have five important characteristics that mirror how credentials work in the offline world:

  1. Credentials are decentralized and contextual. There is no central authority for all credentials. Every party can be an issuer, a holder, or a verifier. Verifiable credentials can be adapted to any country, any industry, any community, or any set of trust relationships.
  2. Credential issuers decide what data is contained in their credentials. Anyone can write credential schemas to the ledger. Anyone can create a credential definition based on any of these schemas.
  3. Verifiers make their own decisions about which credentials to accept—there's no central authority who determines what credentials are important or which are used for a given purpose.
  4. Verifiers do not need to contact issuers to perform verification—that's what the ledger is for. Credential verifiers don't need to have any technical, contractual, or commercial relationship with credential issuers in order to determine the credentials' fidelity.
  5. Credential holders are free to choose which credentials to carry and what information to disclose. People and organizations are in control of the credentials they hold and to determine what to share with whom.

These characteristics underlie several important properties that support the generativity of credential exchange. Here are the most important:

PrivatePrivacy by Design is baked deep into the architecture of the identity metasystem as reflected by several fundamental architectural choices:

  1. Peer DIDs are pairwise unique and pseudonymous by default to prevent correlation.
  2. Personal data is never written to the ledgers at Layer 1 in Figure 1—not even in encrypted or hashed form. Instead, all private data is exchanged over peer-to-peer encrypted connections between off-ledger agents at Layer 2. The ledger is used for anchoring rather than publishing encrypted data.
  3. Credential exchange has built-in support for zero-knowledge proofs (ZKP) to avoid unnecessary disclosure of identity attributes.
  4. As we saw earlier, verifiers don’t need to contact the issuer to verify a credential. Consequently, the issuer doesn’t know when or where the credential is used.

Decentralized—decentralization follows directly from the fact that no one owns the infrastructure that supports credential exchange. This is the primary criterion for judging the degree of decentralization in a system. Rather, the infrastructure, like that of the internet, is operated by many organizations and people bound by protocol.

Heterarchical—a heterarchy is a "system of organization where the elements of the organization are unranked (non-hierarchical) or where they possess the potential to be ranked a number of different ways." Participants in credential exchange relate to each other as peers and are autonomous.

Interoperable—verifiable credentials have a standard format, readily accessible schemas, and a standard protocols for issuance, proving (presenting), and verification. Participants can interact with anyone else so long as they use tools that follow the standards and protocols. Credential exchange isn't a single, centralized system from a single vendor with limited pieces and parts. Rather, interoperability relies on interchangeable parts, built and operated by various parties. Interoperability supports substitutability, a key factor in autonomy and flexibility.

Substitutable—the tools for issuing, holding, proving, and verifying are available from multiple vendors and follow well-documented, open standards. Because these tools are interoperable, issuers, holders, and verifiers can choose software, hardware, and services without fear of being locked into a proprietary tool. Moreover, because many of the attributes the holder needs to prove (e.g. email address or even employer) will be available on multiple credentials, the holder can choose between credentials. Usable substitutes provide choice and freedom.

Flexible—closely related to substitutability, flexibility allows people to select appropriate service providers and features. No single system can anticipate all the scenarios that will be required for billions of individuals to live their own effective lives. The characteristics of credential exchange allow for context-specific scenarios.

Reliable and Censorship Resistant—people, businesses, and others must be able to exchange credentials without worrying that the infrastructure will go down, stop working, go up in price, or get taken over by someone who would do them harm. Substitutability of tools and credentials combined with autonomy makes the system resistant to censorship. There is no hidden third party or intermediary in Figure 2. Credentials are exchanged peer-to-peer.

Non-proprietary and Open—no one has the power to change how credentials are exchanged by fiat. Furthermore, the underlying infrastructure is less likely to go out of business and stop operation because its maintenance and operation are decentralized instead of being in the hands of a single organization. The identity metasystem has the same three virtues of the Internet that Doc Searls and Dave Weinberger enumerated as NEA: No one owns it, Everyone can use it, and Anyone can improve it. The protocols and code that enable the metasystem are open source and available for review and improvement.

Agentic—people can act as autonomous agents, under their self-sovereign authority. The most vital value proposition of self-sovereign identity is autonomy—not being inside someone else's administrative system where they make the rules in a one-sided way. Autonomy requires that participants interact as peers in the system, which the architecture of the metasystem supports.

Inclusive—inclusivity is more than being open and permissionless. Inclusivity requires design that ensures people are not left behind. For example, some people cannot act for themselves for legal (e.g. minors) or other (e.g. refugees) reasons. Support for digital guardianship ensures that those who cannot act for themselves can still participate.

Universal—successful protocols eat other protocols until only one survives. Credential exchange, built on the self-sovereign internet and based on protocol, has network effects that drive interoperability leading to universality. This doesn't mean that the metasystem will be mandated. Rather, one protocol will mediate all interaction because everyone in the ecosystem will conform to it out of self-interest.

The Generativity of Credential Exchange

Applying Zittrain's framework for evaluating generativity is instructive for understanding the generative properties of self-sovereign identity.

Capacity for Leverage

In Zittrain's words, leverage is the extent to which an object "enables valuable accomplishments that otherwise would be either impossible or not worth the effort to achieve." Leverage multiplies effort, reducing the time and cost necessary to innovate new capabilities and features.

Traditional identity systems have been anemic, supporting simple relationships focused on authentication and a few basic attributes their administrators need. They can't easily be leveraged by anyone but their owner. Federation through SAML or OpenID Connect has allowed the authentication functionality to be leveraged in a standard way, but authentication is just a small portion of the overall utility of a digital relationship.

One example of the capacity of credential exchange for leverage is to consider that it could be the foundation for a system that disintermediates platform companies like Uber, AirBnB, and the food delivery platforms. Platform companies build proprietary trust frameworks to intermediate exchanges between parties and charging exorbitant rents for what ought to be a natural interaction among peers. Credential exchange can open these trust frameworks up to create open marketplaces for services.

The next section on Adaptability lists a number of uses for credentials. The identity metasystem supports all these use cases with minimal development work on the part of issuers, verifiers, and holders. And because the underlying system is interoperable, an investment in the tools necessary to solve one identity problem with credentials can be leveraged by many others without new investment. The cost to define a credential is very low (often less than $100) and once the definition is in place, there is no cost to issue credentials against it. A small investment can allow an issuer to issue millions of credentials of different types for different use cases.


Adaptability can refer to a technology's ability to be used for multiple activities without change as well as its capacity for modification in service of new use cases. Adaptability is orthogonal to a technology's capacity for leverage. An airplane, for example, offers incredible leverage, allowing goods and people to be transported over long distances quickly. But airplanes are neither useful in activities outside transportation or easily modified for different uses. A technology that supports hundreds of use cases is more generative than one that is useful in only a few.

Identity systems based on credential exchange provide people with the means of operationalizing their online relationships by providing them the tools for acting online as peers and managing the relationships they enter into. Credential exchange allows for ad hoc interactions that were not or cannot be imagined a priori.

The flexibility of credentials ensures they can be used in a variety of situations. Every form or official piece of paper is a potential credential. Here are a few examples of common credentials:

  • Employee badges
  • Drivers license
  • Passport
  • Wire authorizations
  • Credit cards
  • Business registration
  • Business licenses
  • College transcripts
  • Professional licensing (government and private)

But even more important, every bundle of data transmitted in a workflow is a potential credential. Since credentials are just trustworthy containers for data, there are many more use cases that may not be typically thought of as credentials:

  • Invoices and receipts
  • Purchase orders
  • Airline or train ticket
  • Boarding pass
  • Certificate of authenticity (e.g. for art, other valuables)
  • Gym (or any) membership card
  • Movie (or any) tickets
  • Insurance cards
  • Insurance claims
  • Titles (e.g. property, vehicle, etc.)
  • Certificate of provenance (e.g. non-GMO, ethically sourced, etc.)
  • Prescriptions
  • Fractional ownership certificates for high value assets
  • CO2 rights and carbon credit transfers
  • Contracts

Since even a small business might issue receipts or invoices, have customers who use the company website, or use employee credentials, most businesses will define at least one credential and many will need many more. There are potentially tens of millions of different credential types. Many will use common schemas but each credential from a different issuer constitutes a different identity credential for a different context.

With the ongoing work in Hyperledger Aries, these use cases expand even further. With a “redeemable credentials” feature, holders can prove possession of a credential in a manner that is double-spend proof without a ledger. This works for all kinds of redemption use cases like clocking back in at the end of a shift, voting in an election, posting an online review, or redeeming a coupon.

The information we need in any given relationship varies widely with context. Credential exchange protocols must be flexible enough to support many different situations. For example, in You've Had an Automobile Accident, I describe a use case that requires the kinds of ad hoc, messy, and unpredictable interactions that happen all the time in the physical world. Credential exchange readily adapts to these context-dependent, ad hoc situations.

Ease of Mastery

Ease of mastery refers to the capacity of a technology to be easily and broadly adapted and adopted. One of the core features of credential exchange on the identity metasystem is that supports the myriad use cases described above without requiring new applications or user experiences for each one. The digital wallet that is at the heart of credential exchange activities on the self-sovereign internet supports two primary artifacts and the user experiences to manage them: connections and credentials. Like the web browser, even though multiple vendors provide digital wallets, the underlying protocol informs a common user experience.

A consistent user experience doesn’t mean a single user interface. Rather the focus is on the experience. As an example, consider an automobile. My grandfather, who died in 1955, could get in a modern car and, with only a little instruction, successfully drive it. Consistent user experiences let people know what to expect so they can intuitively understand how to interact in any given situation regardless of context.


Accessible technologies are easy to acquire, inexpensive, and resistant to censorship. Because of it's openness, standardization, and support by multiple vendors, credential exchange is easily available to anyone with access to a computer or phone with an internet connection. But we can't limit its use to individuals who have digital access and legal capacity. Ensuring that technical and legal architectures for credential exchange support guardianship and use on borrowed hardware can provide accessibility to almost everyone in the world.

The Sovrin Foundation's Guardianship Working working group has put significant effort into understanding the technical underpinnings (e.g., guardianship and delegation credentials), legal foundations (e.g., guardianship contracts), and business drivers (e.g., economic models for guardianship). They have produced an excellent whitepaper on guardianship that "examines why digital guardianship is a core principle for Sovrin and other SSI architectures, and how it works from inception to termination through looking at real-world use cases and the stories of two fictional dependents, Mya and Jamie."

Self-Sovereign Identity and Generativity

In What is SSI?, I made the claim that SSI requires decentralized identifiers, credential exchange, and autonomy for participants. Dick Hardt pushed back on that a bit and asked me if decentralized identifiers were really necessary? We had a several fun discussions on that topic.

In that article, I unfortunately used decentralized identifiers and verifiable credentials as placeholders for their properties. Once I started looking at properties, I realized that generative identity can't be built on an administrative identity system. Self-sovereign identity is generative not only because of the credential exchange protocols but also because of the properties of the self-sovereign internet upon which those protocols are defined and operate. Without the self-sovereign internet, enabled through DIDComm, you might implement something that works as SSI, but it won't provide the leverage and adaptability necessary to creating a generative ecosystem of uses that creates the network effects needed to propel it to ubiquity.

Our past approach to digital identity has put us in a position where people's privacy and security are threatened by the administrative identity architecture it imposes. Moreover, limiting its scope to authentication and a few unauthenticated attributes, repeated across thousands of websites with little interoperability, has created confusion, frustration, and needless expense. None of the identity systems in common use today offer support for the same kind of ad hoc attribute sharing that happens everyday in the physical world. The result has been anything but generative. Entities who rely on attributes from several parties must perform integrations with all of them. This is slow, complex, and costly, so it typically happens only for high-value applications.

An identity metasystem that supports protocol-mediated credential exchange running on top of the self-sovereign internet solves these problems and promises generative identity for everyone. By starting with people and their innate autonomy, generative identity supports online activities that are life-like and natural. Generative identity allows us to live digital lives with dignity and effectiveness, contemplates and addresses the problems of social inclusion, and supports economic access for people around the globe.


  1. For Alice to prove things about her salary, Attestor would have to include that in the credential they issue to Alice.

Photo Credit: Generative Art Ornamental Sunflower from dp792 (Pixabay)

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Last modified: Tue Jan 26 16:23:17 2021.